Estate Planning

Selling your business?

So you have an offer to buy your business. How exciting!

Although there may be agreement on the price being paid and the amount of deposit, what else needs to be considered?

  • How is the price apportioned between goodwill and equipment?
  • Have you considered the costs associated with the sale – you may have an agreement with a business broker, but there are lawyers, accountants, financial advisers also.
  • What about tax, capital gains tax (CGT) in particular, and is GST payable?

Who does what?

You need good advice. You are great at what you do, but you cant do everything. You need a great team of advisers – this is their thing.

Your lawyer will be required to prepare the legal documents that give effect to the sale (such as Business Sale Contract, Share Sale Agreement, Deed of Restraint, Deed of Consent to Assignment of Lease, Employment Contracts, Deed of Novation, Consultancy Agreements etc… yes, there may be others).

Your accountant can advise on the price apportionment and taxation implications, whether GST is payable or not, and how to make the most of any CGT concessions, exemptions and rollover relief such as those relating to small business and retirement.

Your financial adviser can give you advice on what to do with your cash to make the most of it now or in retirement.

What are you actually selling?

It would seem obvious, but have you considered what you are actually selling? Are you selling your business or, in the case of a company or unit trust, the entity that owns it?

There is a big difference, particularly given that entitlements to income and liability for expenses incurred prior to completion of the sale will remain with the vendor under a business sale whereas in the case of a share sale, the whole lot will be under the control of the purchaser from completion.

This will also affect how much due diligence a purchaser may undertake – as any prudent purchaser would have concerns about potential claims, tax debts etc

The usual things

Assuming a sale of business, not a share sale, some of the other things to consider is what is included in the sale?

  • Business name
  • Plant and equipment used by the business
  • Stock
  • Customer lists
  • Agreements with suppliers, referrers… to the extent they can be transferred
  • Phone/fax numbers, logos, domain names, email addresses social media etc
  • Intellectual property – do you have any trademarks?
  • Licenses/permits to operate the business
  • Are staff being terminated or transferring to the purchaser? What are employee entitlements are due?
  • Are the business premises leased? Is the agreement subject a an assignment of the existing lease or the granting of a new lease?
  • Personal Property Securities Register issues – for example, is the telephone system under a hire purchase agreement? Is the photocopier leased?
  • Do you need the consent of anyone to the sale proceeding? Eg, a franchisor, a mortgagor, someone you have given a first option to purchase to for example?
  • Are there to be restraints of trade/non-competition provisions that affect you? What about for key staff?

Although an exciting time, there are many issues that need to be considered when you are selling your business. The abovementioned items are certainly not an exhaustive list of things to consider and every business is different, but hopefully it gets you thinking about what you may need to consider when selling your business.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to buying/selling businesses, intellectual property or any commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

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Superannuation Death Benefit Nominations

Did you know that on your death, your superannuation balance will not necessarily be dealt with in accordance with your wishes unless you have a valid beneficiary death benefit nomination in place. That’s right, your Will probably doesn’t have any effect as regards your super.

The trustees of most super funds have a discretion as to who to pay a benefit to and usually, the fund rules specify the member’s dependants as the class of beneficiaries to be considered first, with the trustee to determine the amounts/proportions.

Imagine what happens if you are separated (but not divorced) and you are living with another person (as a de facto) – a dispute could easily arise. What if you have children? What would/should the split be?

If you have no dependants, the trustee will likely pay it to your estate, but why take the risk? and does your Will adequately deal with that asset?

To minimise disputes and avoid applications to the Superannuation Complaints Tribunal or the Supreme Court of NSW, make a nomination. There are generally 2 types: Non-binding and Binding

NON-BINDING NOMINATIONS

A non-binding nomination is an indication to your trustee of your preferences but it is, as it states – non-binding so the trustee can ignore it. This can be a good idea if there are significant changes in circumstances before your death where you haven’t got around to updating your nomination. The trustee’s discretion could prevent it going to your ex or avoid the situation of you accidentally omitting one of your kids from a benefit.

BINDING NOMINATIONS

A binding nomination is exactly that – binding (provided that it is valid as at the date of death). There are 2 sub-categories of binding nomination: lapsing and non-lapsing.
  • LAPSING – Most funds provide for the lapsing type – these need to be renewed every 3 years or the nominations lapse.
  • NON-LAPSING – Some Self-Managed Super Funds (SMSFs) and some retails funds allow in their deeds for nominations that never lapse (unless you update it). Older SMSF Deeds and their Rules do not allow for the non-lapsing type and may need to be updated.

There are requirements for making any nomination legally valid, witnesses etc.

Speak to us about your estate planning and ensure your wishes are properly documented.

FURTHER INFORMATION
If you would like any further information in relation to superannuation death benefit nominations or updating SMSF deeds , please contact us on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au

Minimizing risk in your business

Running a business is risky and small businesses can be especially so. Minimizing risk in your business is crucial.

Often, SME owners put their own personal assets on the line, whether to borrow funds from a lender to start up or buy stock or equipment or by signing a guarantee in relation to suppliers and others for the debts of the business.

There are several methods of protecting personal assets from creditors, but it is a process that many don’t follow. Some are quite simple and easy to put in place. They include…

Placing assets in a spouses’ name or in a family trust

In most circumstances, creditors will not be able to make a claim upon assets owned by your spouse or held by a discretionary trust, provided that you are not the trustee. If your spouse is the trustee, then he or she is the person who will usually decide how to divide up the income or capital of a trust (or not to).

Of course, stamp duty and capital gains tax issues must also be considered before acquiring or transferring assets as well as the potential operation of claw back provisions. The loss of the principal place of residence CGT exemption or the land tax issues may be a factor weighing against doing this.

In the end, it is weighing up risk vs benefits and making an informed decision regarding any asset protection measures.

Encumbering assets if you cannot transfer them

An asset that is mortgaged to its value is not attractive to a creditor. The mortgagee in such a case is the only entity that will benefit from the subsequent sale of the asset.

A guarantee form a person without assets is effectively valueless. Often businesses don’t check to see what a guarantor actually owns.

If you seek a guarantee from a director of another business, you could make some inquiries about their credit/financial position before creating an account,

Correctly structuring your business

Sometimes it is not feasible to establish an asset-holding entity and a trading entity (as many small business start-ups are strapped for cash) but it can be a great way to protect the business assets from day to day trading risks. Even getting the type of business structure right from the beginning (sole trader, partnership, company, trust or combination etc) can have a massive impact on your business.

It is possible to establish a company with a single director and/or single shareholder. The company dealing with third parties, supplies, customers and the like is the entity that may be liable to them, not the shareholders.

The shareholders are only liable to the company for the unpaid amounts (if any) on any issued share capital. This liability is usually a nominal amount such as a dollar. Shareholders have no liability to third parties unless they agree to it, such as by giving a guarantee.

Company directors may have some liability but only in limited circumstances can the corporate veil be lifted. Courts may be prepared to lift the veil in limited circumstances, such as in the case of insolvent trading, fraud or misrepresentation, inappropriate transactions or where public policy requires it.

Charging assets (and properly recording the charge)

Before lending money to your business, a charge should be created in the correct form and that form recorded as against assets such as real property (by way of mortgage recorded at Land and Property Information or another State’s land titles registry) or against non-real estate assets (by way of a Specific or General Security Deed and making a registration on the Personal Property Securities Register (PPSR)) to secure repayment of that money in preference to other creditors should the business fail.

Having proper terms of trade

Most businesses, if they have them at all, have terribly inadequate terms and conditions of trade. Often they are just copied and pasted from other documents and not tailored, leaving businesses thinking they are adequately protected when they really are not covered at all.

T&Cs should be built to protect your particular business and should be a work in progress, tweaked to solve or prevent problems that have arisen in your business from occurring again,

Avoiding personal guarantees altogether

A guarantee is a contract by which a guarantor promises that another person or entity will comply with his, her or its obligations to a third party and if they don’t, the guarantor will. The most common example involves bank loans where a guarantor such as a parent promises to repay the loan of their child if the child defaults.

Becoming a guarantor can be extremely risky, particularly when large liabilities are involved. Under most guarantees, the guarantor becomes immediately and primarily liable to repay the debt (and the lender does not have to wait for attempt to recover from the borrower before calling on the guarantee).

As a practical matter, many businesses cannot obtain finance unless a personal guarantee is provided. If this is the case however, whenever the loan is actually repaid or if the business can prove it is financial stable and secure, the guarantee should be discharged so that the guarantor cannot continue to rely on it at a later date concerning subsequent transactions.

Managing staff

One of the biggest risks to your business is that of staff leaving, and worse still, taking valuable information and assets with them.

Having appropriately drafted Employment Contracts with restraints of trade in them is a must.

Superannuation contributions

In many circumstances, superannuation entitlements can be protected from bankruptcy trustees. There may be no protection for example where the payments are made for the primary purpose of defeating creditors.

Making contributions to super is getting harder and harder with the Federal Government’s recent changes to the superannuation laws however, this can be an effective long term tool for wealth creation and asset protection. This will also usually involve the assistance of your financial planner.

Business succession planning

If you are in business with another person, what happens to your business if you or your business partner gets seriously injured or dies?

Do you have an appropriate and valid Will, Enduring Power of Attorney and Appointment of Enduring Guardians in place?

Usually having these estate planning documents is not enough. Presumably your business partner would give all of his or her assets to their spouse on their death through their Will. What if you don’t want to me in business with your business partner’s partner?

You should have in place business succession documents to deal with this such as a Buy/Sell Deed with appropriate insurances, a Shareholders Agreement (for companies), Unitholders Agreement (for unit trusts) or a Partnership Agreement (for businesses operating through a partnership structure).

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to starting a new business, commercial law, business disputes or estate planning/business succession issues generally, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Why you should look at your estate planning

There are at least 3 documents you should consider as part of your personal estate planning:

  1. A will;
  2. A power of attorney; and
  3. Appointing an enduring guardian.

A WILL

A Will is a legal document that details who will take care of your assets and distribute them on your death in accordance with your stated wishes. Consider:

  • Who you would want to control your estate if you died?
  • What would happen to your estate if you didn’t have a Will?
  • Who would look after your children until they are adults?
  • That life insurance proceeds, jointly owned assets and superannuation benefits are likely not to form part of your estate on your death.
  • What would happen to your business if you died? Business succession is often overlooked or not adequately dealt with by lawyers in wills.
  • Who would control your family trust if you died? Have you even read the trust deed?
  • How your family could best receive any inheritance from your estate having regard to such things as:
    • their own estate planning; asset protection measures; and
    • tax minimisation issues.

If your Will does not consider the above issues adequately or at all, then your intended beneficiaries could be receiving far less from their inheritance than you might hope and paying more tax than is necessary each year after you die.

If you pass away without having a valid Will in place (dying intestate), then your estate will be divided up without regard to your wishes at all.

TESTAMENTARY TRUSTS 

Testamentary trusts can save your family thousands in tax each and every year though income splitting opportunities and also provide a level of asset protection to benefit future generations. See our previous article on Wills with Testamentary Trusts.

POWERS OF ATTORNEY

Who would make decisions about your finances or assets if you were unable to (such as if you are in a coma, are unconscious or suffer from mental incapacity such as dementia)?

You can appoint a power of attorney to be able to manage your affairs. If you do not, the NSW Civil & Administrative Tribunal (NCAT) can appoint a person that you do not know to control your assets and make decisions for you.

APPOINTING AN ENDURING GUARDIAN

Who would make decisions regarding your medical and dental treatment and where you live if you are permanently or temporarily incapable of doing so?

If you don’t nominate somebody as your enduring guardian, then NCAT can appoint a person to make those decisions, which can include what medical treatment you get or if life support is not maintained.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to estate planning, business succession or any  commercial law issues, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

Deceased estate litigation

Succession Act claims

We are often called upon to advise clients in relation to claims on estates in relation to such things as challenging the validity of the Will (such as due to lack of mental capacity when the deceased person made the will or duress) or what is known as a Succession Act claim or a family provision claim (where a person says that adequate provision was not made for them in a Will). We discuss the latter here.

The purpose of the Succession Act is to seek to ensure that “adequate” provision is provided from a deceased’s estate to the family members of a deceased person (and others). Claims under the Act are based on needs.

Important facts

  • Claims must be made within 12 months of the date of death of the deceased (although in limited circumstanced, this time limit can be extended).
  • To make a claim, you must first establish that you are an “eligible person”.
  • Assuming you are an “eligible person”, you must demonstrate needs beyond the provision that was made for you in the Will (if any) for your proper maintenance, education or advancement in life.

Who is an eligible person?

Those who are eligible to make a claim for a provision out of deceased estate include:
  • A spouse of the deceased at the time of the deceased’s death;
  • A person in a de facto relationship with the deceased at the time of death
  • Children (including adopted children) of the deceased;
  • Former spouses of the deceased;
  • Someone with whom the deceased was in a close personal relationship* at the time of their death;
  • Those who have, at any time, been wholly or partly dependent upon the deceased:

- were either a grandchild of the deceased; or

- were, at any time, member of a household of which the deceased a member.

* A “close personal relationship” is a relationship other than a marriage or a de facto relationship between two adult persons, whether or not related by family, who are living together, one or each of whom provides the other with domestic support and personal care but not for reward or on behalf of another person or organisation.

What is involved?

To make a claim, the proceedings are usually commenced in the Supreme Court by way of Summons and evidence will be required in an affidavit setting out the nature and history of the relationship, contributions made to the deceased’s property and wellbeing, details of your financial need and any other relevant factors.

Simply having financial needs and showing some level of dependence on the deceased is not the end of it. The Court will have to weigh up many other factors, such as the size of the estate, the deceased’s wishes (such as those stated in a statement of testamentary intention or other similar document), competing claims from others, circumstances and events that may tend to dis-entitle a person from a benefit and so on.

Time and costs involved

Litigation is a lengthy and time-consuming process and it is an emotional one with family relationships being strained by what may be contained in affidavits or said in the witness box at a hearing. That said, often the estate pays the costs (or a large proportion of them) involved in such cases so it may not be a financial burden to enforce your rights.

Most cases settle prior hearing and usually at a mediation that can be arranged by the Court or by private agreement between the parties. Settlement is often advised to avoid the risks, costs (and emotional cost) of litigation and to help preserve any family relationships.

Often we act for the executors of an estate, but we also act for beneficiaries and those that are not mentioned in Wills at all.
Further information

If you would like any more information in relation to Wills, deceased estate litigation or estate planning/business succession issues generally, please contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au

Why have a Will?

WHAT IS A WILL?

A Will is a legal document that outlines how you wish to have your assets distributed on your death. You get to choose who administers your estate for you and who and how your beneficiaries are to receive your assets.

Generally, to make a Will, you must be over 18, have proper mental capacity and sign a document in the presence of 2 independent witnesses.

If you pass away without having a valid will in place (called ‘dying intestate’) then the provisions of the Succession Act 2006 (NSW) will apply and your estate will be divided up without regard to your wishes.

Take control of who controls your estate and who inherits by putting in place a will today.

EXECUTORS

An executor is the person you appoint in your Will to deal with your estate on your death and to ensure that your wishes are carried out.  Often, people appoint 2 executors or provide for an alternate executor so that if one person is not willing (for example, due to age or infirmity) or able (for example, if they are dead or incapacitated) to act, then the other/alternate executor can act.

WHAT CAN A WILL INCLUDE?

Any asset that you own can be deal with in your will, whether bank accounts, motor vehicles, boats, jewellery or any other item. Particular items can be left to particular people, the whole of your estate can be left to one person or to several people in various fractions or percentages and conditions of gift can be imposed, such as paying out encumbrances such as mortgages.

Real property (houses and land) that is owned as ‘joint tenants’ (as is often the case for married couples) cannot be left by Will because when one joint owner dies, it automatically passes to the surviving owner. Where land is owned as tenants in common, it can be transmitted by Will. There can be good reasons for holding property in either way.

Life insurance and superannuation benefits are not able to be dealt with by a Will where specific beneficiaries have been nominated by policy owner. If the estate is nominated as beneficiary, a nomination has lapsed (they often lapse after 3 years) or no nomination has been made, the proceeds will usually be paid to the estate and distributed under the Will however, the trustee or the insurer may have discretion as to who to pay the benefit to. Your financial advisor would be able to advise you in relation to any superannuation death benefit nominations.

Often, wishes are expressed in Wills such as those relating to cremation or burial and directions regarding guardianship of infant children.

WHEN IS A NEW WILL REQUIRED?

If you get married or if you get separated or divorced from your spouse or partner or if your family circumstances change (for example, through a birth or a death or if you have a significant change to your finances, like an inheritance, bankruptcy, changes in business structure etc), you should make a new Will.

Your Will should be regularly reviewed (every few years at least) to ensure it still reflects your current wishes.

TESTAMENTARY TRUSTS

Consider whether your beneficiaries would benefit from having Wills with Testamentary Trusts as they can offer significant and ongoing benefits, including:

  • asset protection from creditors, and
  • taxation advantages such as income splitting.

This is particularly useful where your beneficiaries are in business and have their own asset protection measures in place, if they are ‘at risk’ or where you have income producing assets. Speak to us about how testamentary trusts can benefit your family.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to estate planning, business succession or any other commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

Trust & Superannuation Deed Amendments

Do you or any of your clients have a family/discretionary trust, unit trust or self-managed superannuation fund and want to change the deed?

Often the change is to remove and replace a trustee with a new one. In other situations, it may be changing a class of potential beneficiaries, dealing with the power of appointment, bringing forward the termination date or changing the trustee’s rights and/or obligations.

Care needs to be taken not to vest the trust or to cause a resettlement, which can give rise to unintended consequences, including:

  • CGT and
  • stamp duty.

There is no real “one size fits all” solution. Deeds can vary greatly as to the process and requirements.

McKillop Legal can assist in reviewing the relevant Deed/Rules and drafting an appropriate document to give effect to the required change.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to trusts, estate planning, business succession or any other commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

What does an enduring guardian do?

An enduring guardian is a person appointed to make decisions about your health and lifestyle for periods in which you are incapable of making such decisions for yourself (for example if you have dementia, are in a coma, are unconscious following a car accident or suffer from some other mental incapacity.)

Appointing an Enduring Guardian is an important step in implementing a proper estate plan (others include having a Will and appointing a Power of Attorney).

HOW DO YOU APPOINT AN ENDURING GUARDIAN?

You can choose who can make decisions on your behalf regarding your medical and dental treatment and decide where you live if you are not capable of doing this for yourself. These are known as “functions”. The easiest way to do this is to appoint an enduring guardian.

The appointment of an enduring guardian takes effect only if and when you become unable to make personal or lifestyle decisions for yourself, such as where you are in a coma, are unconscious or suffer from mental incapacity like dementia.

WHO CAN BE APPOINTED?

An enduring guardian must be at least 18 years of age but cannot be a person who, at the time of the appointment, provides you with medical treatment, accommodation, support or care to you as a professional.

The appointed enduring guardian should be someone that you trust absolutely as they have significant powers. Although an enduring guardian must act in accordance with the provisions of the Guardianship Act 1987 (NSW), you should be satisfied that the person you appoint will act in your best interests.

You can appoint more than one person to act as your enduring guardian – either jointly (together) or separately. You can also appoint alternative enduring guardians in case something happens to your first nominated enduring guardian. For example, people often appoint their spouse and have their children as their joint alternate enduring guardians.

WHAT DECISIONS CAN AN ENDURING GUARDIAN MAKE?

You can give your enduring guardian the discretion to make all decisions for you when you are not able to make them for yourself or alternatively, you can limit your enduring guardian’s functions such as to consenting to certain procedures, limiting their discretion as to the type of nursing home or care facility you want to reside in or requiring specialist consultation or consultation with relatives regarding decisions about your care and treatment.

You cannot give your enduring guardian a function or direction which would require an unlawful act, such as assisted euthanasia. You can provide specific directions regarding turning off life support, ‘do not resuscitate’ orders, assisted ventilation, artificial nutrition and hydration etc.

ENDING ENDURING GUARDIANSHIP

An enduring guardian’s appointment comes to an end when you die or if you revoke the appointment however, you can only revoke it provided you still have mental capacity.

The New South Wales Civil & Administrative Tribunal can review or revoke a person’s appointment as an enduring guardian and can make a guardianship order appointing a new guardian or appointing a representative of the NSW Trustee & Guardian if it is considered that your guardian not making appropriate decisions on your behalf.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to estate planning, business succession or any commercial law issues, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

Setting up a new business

Before starting a new business, the first thing that you need to consider is the structure of the entity to operate the business.

There are numerous options to choose from, such as:

  • sole trader;
  • partnership;
  • company; and
  • unit trust.

This is when it can pay to get good accounting/taxation, financial planning and legal advice as there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each type.

WHICH STRUCTURE IS THE BEST?

There is no right or wrong answer to this necessarily, although some are preferred more than others.

To determine the best structure appropriate structure, you need to consider what is most important for you and your family and things such as what assets/business you already have interests in, whether you intend to be in business with others or you’ll go it alone, how you intend to run the business and whether it is a long term plan or whether you intend to quickly build and sell it.

Each option has different qualities, including:

  • simplicity vs complexity,
  • asset protection vs personal liability,
  • income going to one individual vs ability to minimise tax through income splitting,
  • taxation issues on sale such as CGT exemptions; and
  • business succession planning issues.

OTHER THINGS TO CONSIDER

Once the structure has been determined, and depending on the structure to be adopted, other things that need to be covered off include:

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to starting or buying a business, drafting business documents or any other commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

Superannuation and your estate planning

Did you know that your superannuation does not necessarily form part of your estate when you die? This can cause problems unless it is properly dealt with as part of your Estate Planning.

Your superannuation will not be dealt with in accordance with your wishes (in your Will) unless you have a valid and binding beneficiary nomination in place. The trustees of most funds have discretion as to who to pay benefits to. If you have no dependants, the trustee will likely pay it to your estate, but why take the risk?

Take control of your superannuation death benefits and put in place a beneficiary nomination today.

To avoid applications to the Superannuation Complaints Tribunal or the Supreme Court, make a nomination – they can be binding or non-binding, lapsing or non-lapsing and require formalities such as 2 witnesses etc.

Speak to us about your estate planning and ensure your wishes are properly documented.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to estate planning, business succession or any other commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

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