General

Merry Christmas from McKillop Legal

Our office will be closed from 4pm on Friday, 22 December 2017 and will re-open on Monday, 15 January 2018.

We wish you a very merry Christmas and a happy and prosperous new year ahead in 2018.

What is AUSTRAC and what does it do?

So, what is AUSTRAC and what does it do?

The Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC) is tasked with enforcing compliance with the Financial Transaction Reports Act 1998 (FTR Act) and the Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing Act 2006 (AML/CTF Act).

One of the purposes of the FTR Act and AML/CTF Act is to seek to ensure that instances of tax evasion, money laundering and the potential financing of terrorists are reported to the appropriate authorities.

The AML/CTF Act

The AML/CTF Act imposes obligations on entities that provide ‘designated services’ (such as account/deposit-taking services, cash carrying/payroll services, currency exchange services, life insurance services and lending).

Entities that provide one or more designated services under the AML/CTF Act are ‘reporting entities’.

Threshold transactions

Reporting entities must submit a Threshold Transaction Report (TTR) to AUSTRAC within 10 business days after the entity provides a customer with a designated service involving a ‘threshold transaction’.

Threshold transactions involve the transfer of physical currency or e-currency of AUD$10,000 or more (or foreign currency equivalent).

International funds transfers

The ‘sender’ of an International Funds Transfer Instruction (IFTI) transmitted out of Australia, or the ‘recipient’ of an IFTI transmitted into Australia, must report the instruction to AUSTRAC within 10 business days after the day the instruction was sent or received.

Suspicious matter reports

A reporting entity must submit an Suspicious Matter Report (SMR) to AUSTRAC within 24 hours after forming the relevant suspicion if the suspicion relates to terrorism financing (or otherwise within 3 business days) if it is suspected on reasonable grounds that:

  • a person (or their agent) is not the person they claim to be, or
  • information the reporting entity has may be: relevant to investigate or prosecute a person for; an evasion (or attempted evasion) of a tax law, or § an offence against a Commonwealth, state or territory law; or of assistance in enforcing: the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 (or regulations under that Act); or a State or Territory law that corresponds to that Act or its regulations
  • providing a designated service may be: preparatory to committing an offence related to money laundering or terrorism financing; or relevant to the investigation or prosecution of a person for an offence related to money laundering or terrorism financing.

The FTR Act

Where an entity is covered by the AML/CTF Act (which was enacted years after the FTR Act), they are generally not covered by the FTR Act.

The FTR Act covers cash dealers include financial institutions, corporations that provide financial or insurance services, trustees and managers of unit trusts and a person who carries on a business of operating a gambling house or casino. The obligations of solicitors are also prescribed by the Act.

Where a significant cash transaction takes place (a cash transaction involving AUD$10,000 or more (or foreign currency equivalent including transactions which, when aggregated, exceed that amount), a Significant Cash Transaction Report (SCTR) is to be lodged with AUSTRAC.

Cash dealers who are a party to a ‘suspect’ transaction must report that transaction to AUSTRAC. The cash dealer must submit a suspect transaction report (SUSTR) to AUSTRAC as soon as practicable after forming the suspicion.

The objective of the FTR Act is that by preparing the reports to AUSTRAC, businesses can more easily identify their customers and are therefore more likely to reduce the incidence of fraud.

The importance of workplace policies

All employers need to maintain, develop and implement appropriate workplace policies in their business.

The need for these policies is not only compliance with relevant legislation, but also to protect the businesses against claims which might arise from inappropriate conduct of employees. Creating and enforcing workplace policies is one way in which employers may be able to effectively prevent or manage such claims.

Putting in place suitable policies can be a time-consuming task and one that is potentially dangerous for those who are not familiar with the legislative and contractual requirements involved.

The purpose of workplace policies is to place both the employer and employees (or prospective employees) on notice of certain things such as prohibited conduct. They often prevent any serious problems arising but if problems do arise, the employer is usually able to prove they upheld their legal duty by showing compliance with an established written policy.

We can tailor policies to meet the requirements of your particular business.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of topics that employers may wish to cover with appropriate policies:

  • Equal employment opportunity
  • Discrimination, harassment, bullying and violence
  • Work health and safety
  • Appropriate email and internet use
  • Workplace surveillance
  • Drug and alcohol use
  • Mobile telephone use
  • Dress codes
  • Annual leave and sick leave
  • Dispute resolution
  • Counselling and disciplinary procedures
  • Privacy
  • Redundancy

The workplace policies should be drafted so that they compliment the employment contracts in place.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to workplace policies, business law or employment related matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au

 

What is an indemnity clause?

WHAT IS AN INDEMNITY CLAUSE?

An indemnity clause is a common clause in contracts, whether for the supply of goods, terms and conditions of the provision of services, leasing of assets or the sale of property.

The indemnity is intended to assign responsibility for risks in performing the contract to a particular party – it either confirms or alters the position at common law which would otherwise apply to determine responsibility for such events.

COMMON EXAMPLES

When drafting an indemnity, the nature and types of losses that may arise need to be considered.

Common areas that you may want an indemnity clause or limitation of liability cause to cover may include: negligence; injury to or the death of any person; loss of or damage to property; infringement of third party rights, such as intellectual property rights; duties and taxes; and legal costs and disbursements.

REMOTENESS & REASONABLE FORSEEABILITY

The common law (extending back to the 1854 case of Hadley v Baxendale) basically provides that if a head of damage wasn’t contemplated by the parties at the time of contracting (wasn’t reasonably foreseeable) or didn’t arise naturally arises from the breach according the usual course of thing (is too remote) – it may not be a recoverable loss.

Accordingly, if the damages that you may want the other party to wish the other party to bear on the occurrence of a certain event are considered remote, then they would probably not be recoverable at common law and therefore, you may wish to specifically provide for them in the clause.

The other party may not agree, so the negotiation would then begin and the parties will ultimately have to agree on what is a reasonable compromise in the circumstances.

DRAFTING THE INDEMNITY

Commonly, indemnity clauses are drafted such that where a right to indemnity arises, the liability reduced to the extent that the party benefited by the clause caused or contributed to the loss, that is reduced proportionally.

The extreme in indemnity clauses is where the liable party is liable absolutely (ie, there is no carve out to reduce the liability proportionally). This type of clause, given its strict nature, is usually only agreed to where the event is wholly within the control of the indemnifying party.

INSURANCE COVERAGE

Just as the strength of a personal guarantee is in the financial standing of the guarantor, you also need to be satisfied that the party providing the indemnity has the means to meet any claim if called upon. Often, a party is required to have insurance to support any indemnity but they fail to investigate the extent of their cover and are often not insured at all.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to any contract negotiation, agreement drafting issue commercial dispute, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

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Payment surcharge changes

If your business charges customers a surcharge on transactions, be aware that from 1 September 2017, all businesses that impose payment surcharges on card transactions need to comply with the the Competition and Consumer Amendment (Payment Surcharges) Act 2016 which bans ‘excessive’ payment surcharges.

The new laws cover surcharges on typical card payment methods:

  • EFTPOS (debit and prepaid);
  • MasterCard (credit, debit and prepaid);
  • Visa (credit, debit and prepaid); and
  • American Express companion cards (issued through an Australian financial service provider, rather than directly through American Express*).

*Note that the benchmarks will not apply to foreign-issued cards. American Express proprietary cards (issued by American Express directly) are not covered by the ban, nor are BPAY, PayPal, Diners Club cards, UnionPay, cash or cheques.

The purpose of the legislative ban is to stop excessive surcharges – those charged at a price more than the actual cost of accepting that payment method. The cost to a business of accepting each payment method known as the ‘cost of acceptance’ for that method and is determined according to the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA)’s standards set by the RBA Payments Systems Board.

A payment surcharge is generally considered excessive if it exceeds the ‘cost of acceptance’.

If your cost of acceptance for Visa credit cards is 1%, then you can only charge a maximum of 1%, not 2% or 3%.

The cost of acceptance can include merchant service fees, fees paid for the rental and maintenance of payment card terminals, any other fees incurred in processing card transactions, fraud prevention services, insurance etc but these must be able to be verified by contracts, statements or invoices.

Businesses cannot include any of their own internal costs when calculating their surcharges (for example, labour or electricity costs).

The Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC) is responsible for enforcing the ban and can:

  • issue an infringement notice with penalties of up to $2,160 (individuals, partnerships), $10,800 (body corporate) or $108,000 (listed corporation
  • take court action seeking pecuniary penalties of up to $1,164,780, injunctions and other orders.

Receiving such a penalty would be a disastrous hit to small business, so make sure you comply with the payment surcharge changes. Ask your financial institution to let your know what the average cost of accepting cards is and review it annually so you don’t get caught out.

You may also need to update your business’s Terms of Trade.

Westpac notes costs of acceptance here, NAB here and ANZ here

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to business law, litigation and dispute resolution or any commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Purchasing a Franchise?

What is a franchise?

A franchise is a business system controlled by the franchisor, using the franchisor’s symbol or trade mark for a fee, subject to rules/restrictions/restrictions as stated in the relevant Franchise Agreement.

Given the bargaining power of the franchisor and franchisee being very different, the relationship of franchisor/franchisee is regulated to help ensure fairness in their dealings.

The Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC) regulates the Franchising Code of Conduct (Franchising Code), which is a mandatory industry code that applies to the parties to a franchise agreement.

Franchising Code

The Franchising Code is in Schedule 1 to the Competition and Consumer (Industry Codes – Franchising) Regulation 2014 made under s. 51AE of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010. The Franchising Code applies from 1 January 2015 and replaces the previous 1998 code.

In short, the Franchising Code:

  • requires parties to act in good faith (for example, reasonably, honestly etc) in their dealings
  • introduces financial penalties and infringement notices for serious breaches
  • requires franchisors to provide prospective franchisees with a short information sheet (Disclosure Document) outlining the risks and rewards of franchising
  • requires franchisors to provide greater transparency in the use of and accounting for money used for marketing and advertising and to set up a separate marketing fund for marketing and advertising fees
  • requires additional disclosure about the ability of the franchisor and a franchisee to sell online
  • prohibits franchisors from imposing significant capital expenditure, except in limited circumstances
  • provides a dispute resolution process

Disclosure Document

An important requirement of the Code is the requirement for the franchisor to provide a prospective franchisee with a “Disclosure Document”.

The purpose of the Disclosure Document is to provide prospective franchisees, and existing franchisees that wish to renew or extend their existing agreement, with information about the business and the franchisor to allow the franchisee to make an informed decision about the franchise and obtain current information regarding the franchised business.

The Disclosure Document must provide information on the business, including:

  • the franchisor, its contact details, its business and its directors and their business experience
  • details of any master franchisor
  • the franchise site or territory
  • details of legal proceedings against the franchisor and its directors
  • contact details of current (and former) franchisees
  • financial details
  • the franchisor’s requirements for supply of goods or services to a franchise
  • whether online saes are permitted and any restrictions
  • details on marketing or other cooperative funds
  • details of payments such as pre-payments, establishment costs and other fees
  • details on any trade marks and patents that are part of the franchised business
  • details of arrangements when the franchise arrangement ends

If you are purchasing a franchise, before entering into an agreement, you should seek legal and accounting advice.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to buying/selling businesses, franchises or any commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

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How does jury service work?

Jury service plays an important role in our justice system. Juries are used to ensure that legal verdicts are impartial and in line with community standards of behaviour.


The jury system in New South Wales is administered by the Jury Services Branch of the Office of the Sheriff of New South Wales, operating in accordance with the Jury Act 1977 and the Jury Amendment Act 2010.

WHAT DOES A JURY DO?

Juries are used in the District and Supreme Courts of New South Wales to:
  • hear and determine more serious criminal matters
  • hear and determine civil matters involving large monetary claims
  • participate in coronial inquests in the New South Wales Coroner’s Court.

In criminal trials, a jury hears evidence, applies the law as directed by the judge, and decides if a person is guilty or not guilty of a crime, based on the facts. A jury does not participate in the sentencing process.


In most criminal trials, 12 people are selected to be on the jury. Up to 15 jurors can be empanelled if a trial is expected to last longer than 3 months. To be ‘empanelled’ means to be chosen for a specific trial.

Civil trials which require juries are usually defamation proceedings. The trial judge will outline the issues the jury needs to consider to decide who is at fault. A civil trial jury is typically comprised of 4 jurors however, in the Supreme Court, 12 jurors may be ordered.

HOW IS A JURY SELECTED?

There are 3 steps to jury selection:
  1. Inclusion on the jury roll
  2. Receiving a jury summons
  3. Jury selection and empanelling

People who sit as jurors in a particular trial have gone through all 3 steps.

Each year, the names of around 200,000 potential jurors are randomly selected from the New South Wales Electoral Roll (the list of registered voters) and included on a jury roll. Notices of Inclusion are sent out to tell people they are on the jury roll. This is a list of people who could be selected for jury service in the next 12 months.

Approximately 150,000 people on the roll are sent a jury summons notice at some point in the year. This notice requires them to come to court, where they may be selected as a juror for a specific trial.

Out of these, only about 9,000 people a year are selected to serve on jury panels for specific trials. They are then empanelled as jurors.

You can ask to be excused from jury service for various reasons, including the kind of work you do, personal circumstances or because you are away from the state.

There are several categories of people that are excluded from being on a jury (such as lawyers, judges, members of parliament, policemen etc) and others who may be exempted from being on a jury (such as doctors, firemen, members of the clergy, the ill and those who have been on a jury in the last 3 years etc).

DO YOU GET PAID?

If you are selected as a juror, you will get paid an allowance for attending (only if for more than half a day) plus a travel allowance. This is intended to reduce any financial hardship you may incur by serving as a juror, but is not intended to be equal to your normal wage or salary payment – it is effectively a public service obligation on all citizens of New South Wales.

The amount you are paid depends on the length of the trial and whether you are currently employed or not employed. People who are not employed include carers, stay at home parents, retirees and unemployed people.

The present entitlement are:

The travel allowance is calculated on the distance from your postcode to the courthouse and is presently paid at the rate of 30.7c/Km.

Allowances are paid weekly by electronic funds transfers to your nominated bank account. You will be given details to log onto juror.nsw.gov.au and enter your bank account details prior to your court attendance.

WHAT ABOUT EMPLOYERS?

The allowance paid to jurors is not intended to be a substitute for a salary or wage.

Under the Fair Work Act 2009, an employer is required to pay full-time or part-time staff for the first 10 days of jury service.

Employers cannot:
  • force employees to take own leave, such as recreation or sick leave, while doing jury service;
  • dismiss, injure or alter their employees position for doing jury service;
  • ask employees to work on any day that they are serving as jurors; or
  • ask employees to do additional hours or work to make up for time that they missed as a result of jury service.

 

FURTHER INFORMATION
Craig Pryor  is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to jury duty or any court/litigation related matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

Buy/Sell Deeds explained

WHY HAVE A BUY/SELL DEED?

A Buy/Sell Deed is an agreement between the owners of a company or unit trust that upon the death or permanent disablement of a director or key person associated with a shareholder/unitholder, that shareholder/unitholder must transfer its shares to the remaining shareholders in exchange for payment.

The method of determining the price is agreed and the funding of that payment usually comes from the proceeds of insurance policies to be taken out for those risks by the shareholders/unitholders.

A Buy/Sell Agreement is not a general Shareholders Agreement or Unitholders Agreement so it does not regulate all dealings in relation to the company.

COMMON SCENARIOS A BUY/SELL COULD HELP PREVENT

Consider the following and how it may affect you and your company…

  • A shareholder dies and you as the remaining shareholder inherit an unintended (and potentially non-income producing) business partner such as the deceased shareholder’s spouse (as they receive the deceased’s assets via their Will), with company profits being paid out according to the shareholdings.
  • You have to buy shares from a deceased shareholder’s estate above their value.
  • Your family do not get the best price for your shares in the company.
  • The remaining shareholders don’t have available funds to pay out a deceased shareholder or a shareholder who can no longer contribute to the business due to total and permanent disability.
  • The business either needs to be sold or funds need to be borrowed by the remaining shareholders or the company to make the payments.
  • A key person to the company has died, leaving the company in the position of losing a key source of revenue, client relationships and knowhow, affecting the value of the company and its business and its viability in the future.

CERTAINTY

A Buy/Sell Agreement is designed to bring certainty in relation to the exit from a business as the result of death or permanent disability of a key person – certainty for an ill shareholder, a deceased shareholder’s family, the remaining owners and the company itself. Don’t leave it to chance.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to Buy/Sell Deeds, Shareholders Agreements, any or any commercial dispute or issue, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

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Selling your business?

So you have an offer to buy your business. How exciting!

Although there may be agreement on the price being paid and the amount of deposit, what else needs to be considered?

  • How is the price apportioned between goodwill and equipment?
  • Have you considered the costs associated with the sale – you may have an agreement with a business broker, but there are lawyers, accountants, financial advisers also.
  • What about tax, capital gains tax (CGT) in particular, and is GST payable?

Who does what?

You need good advice. You are great at what you do, but you cant do everything. You need a great team of advisers – this is their thing.

Your lawyer will be required to prepare the legal documents that give effect to the sale (such as Business Sale Contract, Share Sale Agreement, Deed of Restraint, Deed of Consent to Assignment of Lease, Employment Contracts, Deed of Novation, Consultancy Agreements etc… yes, there may be others).

Your accountant can advise on the price apportionment and taxation implications, whether GST is payable or not, and how to make the most of any CGT concessions, exemptions and rollover relief such as those relating to small business and retirement.

Your financial adviser can give you advice on what to do with your cash to make the most of it now or in retirement.

What are you actually selling?

It would seem obvious, but have you considered what you are actually selling? Are you selling your business or, in the case of a company or unit trust, the entity that owns it?

There is a big difference, particularly given that entitlements to income and liability for expenses incurred prior to completion of the sale will remain with the vendor under a business sale whereas in the case of a share sale, the whole lot will be under the control of the purchaser from completion.

This will also affect how much due diligence a purchaser may undertake – as any prudent purchaser would have concerns about potential claims, tax debts etc

The usual things

Assuming a sale of business, not a share sale, some of the other things to consider is what is included in the sale?

  • Business name
  • Plant and equipment used by the business
  • Stock
  • Customer lists
  • Agreements with suppliers, referrers… to the extent they can be transferred
  • Phone/fax numbers, logos, domain names, email addresses social media etc
  • Intellectual property – do you have any trademarks?
  • Licenses/permits to operate the business
  • Are staff being terminated or transferring to the purchaser? What are employee entitlements are due?
  • Are the business premises leased? Is the agreement subject a an assignment of the existing lease or the granting of a new lease?
  • Personal Property Securities Register issues – for example, is the telephone system under a hire purchase agreement? Is the photocopier leased?
  • Do you need the consent of anyone to the sale proceeding? Eg, a franchisor, a mortgagor, someone you have given a first option to purchase to for example?
  • Are there to be restraints of trade/non-competition provisions that affect you? What about for key staff?

Although an exciting time, there are many issues that need to be considered when you are selling your business. The abovementioned items are certainly not an exhaustive list of things to consider and every business is different, but hopefully it gets you thinking about what you may need to consider when selling your business.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to buying/selling businesses, intellectual property or any commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

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Business names and trade marks are the same thing, right? Wrong

A BUSINESS NAME DOES NOT CONFER OWNERSHIP

Having a business name is a requirement so that people can ascertain the owners of a business they are dealing with. The register of business names is now maintained by ASIC.

Registration of a business name is required before carrying on a business or trade within Australia. Exceptions to registration include:

  • those operating as sole traders with their operating name being identical as their first name and surname (tip – if it has ‘& Co’, “& Partners” or ‘& Associates’ it must be registered);
  • partnerships where the operating name is the same as all of the partners’ names;
  • registered Australian companies whose operating name is the same as the company’s name (ie, with the “Pty Ltd” added).

While a business name is often used as a brand or trademark, having business name registration does not give ownership of that name. Only a trade mark under the Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth) can provide that kind of protection.

Don’t rely on a business name registration thinking that it gives you any protection – it doesn’t give you any protection at all.

If you register a business, company or domain name, you do not automatically have the right to use that name as a trade mark. The same word(s) may be able to be registered by different people as a business name in other states and territories.

A REGISTERED TRADEMARK IS NECESSARY TO OWN A NAME

If you have a registered trade mark, you do have exclusive use of the trade mark throughout Australia (and other jurisdictions if you obtain registration there also) and you can take legal action for infringement of your trade mark if another person or entity uses it for goods or services like those covered by your trade mark registration.

A trademark can be a word or words, a phrase, a logo or a combination thereof (and even scents, sounds and colours!) which identify and distinguish a business’s goods or services from those of others. You can also trade mark your domain name if it fits within the requirements of the legislation.

There is no legal requirement to use the TM or ® symbols however, the TM symbol indicates that you have a pending application for the brand or that you are claiming some rights in the name without trademark registration whereas the ® symbol indicates that the trademark is registered.

After establishing or growing a business, the last thing you would want to do is receive a ‘cease and desist’ letter from the lawyers of a competitor asking you to cease using their client’s trade mark and to account to them for profits you have made, so don’t rely on a business name registration thinking that it gives you any protection, as it does not!

If you or your clients that are trading without a registered business name or under a brand without trademark protection, then they should be referred for advice by an expert in the area.

Similarly, if you have a trademark and become aware of someone infringing on your trademark, such as by using a very similar name or logo or indicating they have some association with your business or products when they do not, you should get advice from a lawyer on sending an appropriately worded letter asking them to cease using it,

FURTHER INFORMATION

Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to intellectual property licensing or infringement or any commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email craig@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

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