What is an Advance Care Directive?

Many people, when thinking of their estate planning arrangements, will have at least thought about:

  • making a Will to direct how their assets in their estate will be distributed on their death
  • putting in place an Enduring Power of Attorney to manage their financial affairs they become unable to do so
  • appointing an Enduring Guardian to make decisions about their healthcare, accommodation and lifestyle if they cannot

but often, they will never have heard of an Advance Care Directive or a ‘Living Will’.

So what is an Advance Care Directive? An Advance Care Directive is a way inform others of your specific wishes in relation to your future care and treatment and identifying steps that you do and/or do not want taken if you become medically incapacitated and cannot state these wishes for yourself.

It is best to put these wishes down in a document and have it witnessed or signed, but it can be verbal.

An Appointment of Enduring Guardians and an Advance Care Directive are complementary powers and there is often no need for an Advance Care Directive at all if the functions of the Enduring Guardian are stated broadly or if there are specific directions given to the enduring guardian in the document appointing them (an Advance Care Directive can be part of the Appointment of Enduring Guardians).

The appointed guardian (and any medical practitioners) must act in accordance with any known Advance Care Directive unless it is clearly revoked or replaced by the directions in Appointment of Enduring Guardians.

People’s views on matters like life support, assisted ventilation, resuscitation, artificial nutrition/hydration and palliative care can, and often do, change over time so documents like Advance Care Directives should be updated when necessary so as to reflect a person’s most current wishes regarding their medical treatment.


Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to Advance Care Directives, estate planning, aged care issues, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

Stay up to date - LinkedIn Facebook Twitter



Company power of attorney

What would happen to your company if its sole director became incapacitated or died? How would bills and staff get paid? Who would make decisions on behalf of the business?

Companies may only act through its directors so in the case of a sole director company, the company will be unable to operate if something happened to its director.

personal power of attorney granted by a director is not valid where it seeks to allow someone to act in the role of a director of a company as the position of a director is a personal duty that cannot be delegated. Only the shareholders of a sole director company can appoint a replacement, even if it is only temporary.

A personal held by a shareholder may be able to call a meeting of shareholders so as to seek to appoint a replacement director, but this all takes time.

Each company that has a single director should appoint its own attorney as part of its overall risk management strategy.

The Corporations Act grants to a company all the powers and authority of a ‘natural person’ and as such, a company can appoint an attorney under a company power of attorney to act on its behalf when the company itself is not able to act (such as through the incapacity or ill heath of its sole director) and this attorney can continue to act even if the sole director died.


Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to corporations, commercial law or business related matters, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your legal concerns or objectives.

Stay up to date - LinkedIn Facebook Twitter

Why you should look at your estate planning

There are at least 3 documents you should consider as part of your personal estate planning:

  1. A will;
  2. A power of attorney; and
  3. Appointing an enduring guardian.


A Will is a legal document that details who will take care of your assets and distribute them on your death in accordance with your stated wishes. Consider:

  • Who you would want to control your estate if you died?
  • What would happen to your estate if you didn’t have a Will?
  • Who would look after your children until they are adults?
  • That life insurance proceeds, jointly owned assets and superannuation benefits are likely not to form part of your estate on your death.
  • What would happen to your business if you died? Business succession is often overlooked or not adequately dealt with by lawyers in wills.
  • Who would control your family trust if you died? Have you even read the trust deed?
  • How your family could best receive any inheritance from your estate having regard to such things as:
    • their own estate planning; asset protection measures; and
    • tax minimisation issues.

If your Will does not consider the above issues adequately or at all, then your intended beneficiaries could be receiving far less from their inheritance than you might hope and paying more tax than is necessary each year after you die.

If you pass away without having a valid Will in place (dying intestate), then your estate will be divided up without regard to your wishes at all.


Testamentary trusts can save your family thousands in tax each and every year though income splitting opportunities and also provide a level of asset protection to benefit future generations. See our previous article on Wills with Testamentary Trusts.


Who would make decisions about your finances or assets if you were unable to (such as if you are in a coma, are unconscious or suffer from mental incapacity such as dementia)?

You can appoint a power of attorney to be able to manage your affairs. If you do not, the NSW Civil & Administrative Tribunal (NCAT) can appoint a person that you do not know to control your assets and make decisions for you.


Who would make decisions regarding your medical and dental treatment and where you live if you are permanently or temporarily incapable of doing so?

If you don’t nominate somebody as your enduring guardian, then NCAT can appoint a person to make those decisions, which can include what medical treatment you get or if life support is not maintained.


Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to estate planning, business succession or any  commercial law issues, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email

What is a Power of Attorney?


The Powers of Attorney Act 2003 (NSW) provides for a person to appoint another person as their attorney to make financial and contractual decisions on their behalf. The document granting a power of attorney is a prescribed form under the Act.

general power of attorney does not require a solicitor’s certificate however, it ceases to be of effect if you lose mental capacity (like where you are in a coma or suffer from dementia).

An enduring power of attorney on the other hand continues to be effective if you were to suffer such an incapacity. For this reason, an enduring power of attorney must be explained to you and witnessed by a lawyer who will provide a certificate in the prescribed form. We usually recommend an enduring power of attorney so that if some event happened to you that affected your capacity, your attorney would still be able to assist you.

If you are suffering from any illness, have deteriorating health, are going overseas or interstate or just want peace of mind, appointing an attorney to assist you to manage your affairs is generally a good idea.


The nominated attorney has the ability to decide whether or not to accept that role by signing it.

You can choose when your power of attorney is to take effect. It can be restricted to only take effect if a registered medical practitioner certifies that you are of unsound mind, upon some other event (such as whilst you are overseas), from a date you choose or, it can operate immediately (for convenience).

You can give the power of attorney for specific purpose (for example to assist with the sale or purchase of a specific property or to attend an auction and bid on your behalf), for a specified time (for example, between 2 dates) and you can give directions on how powers are to be exercised (such as not to bid above a certain level or to only sell for a certain reserve price).

You can have a power of attorney for situations of necessity, like where you are ill or absent, or simply for convenience, but you have to appoint someone you trust without reservation.

An attorney may not use the principal’s monies or assets for gifts or benefits to the attorney or third parties unless this is specifically authorised in the document granting the power of attorney


Provided you remain of sound mind, you can revoke a power of attorney at any time by signing a form of revocation and providing the attorney with that revocation.

The New South Wales Civil & Administrative Tribunal can review or revoke a person’s appointment as a power of attorney and can make a financial management order appointing a new attorney (or attorneys) or by appoint a representative of the NSW Trustee & Guardian if it is considered that your attorney not making appropriate decisions on your behalf.


A power of attorney must be registered at the Land & Property Information Division of the New South Wales Department of Lands if it is being used for dealing with land in NSW, such as selling, transferring, mortgaging property and the like.


Craig Pryor is principal solicitor at McKillop Legal. For further information in relation to estate planning, business succession or any other commercial law matter, contact Craig Pryor on (02) 9521 2455 or email