Commercial Law

Why your SMSF should have a corporate trustee

The Superannuation Industry (Supervision) Act 1993 (Cth) (SIS Act) has strict rules as to who must act as a trustee of a self-managed superannuation fund (SMSF), but basically this means:

  • if you are individual trustees of a SMSF, all members must be trustees of the SMSF
  • If you have a corporate trustee of a SMSF, then all members must be directors of it.

The SIS Act also provides that those trusteeship rules will continue to be satisfied if a member’s attorney (under an enduring power of attorney) is appointed as trustee/director in place of the member. This can also assist if you will be overseas and unable to tend to the management of the SMSF for a prolonged period.

Where there is no enduring power of attorney, the member may need to be rolled out of the SMSF or an administrator may need to be appointed by the Court. One consequence of breaking these trusteeship rules can be the ATO removing the SMSF’s complying status and triggering tax at the top marginal tax rate.

There are several important reasons as to why your SMSF should have a corporate trustee. So how can having a company as trustee be of benefit?

Individual trustee dies or becomes incapacitated

When a member who is a SMSF trustee becomes incapacitated or dies, the trustee/s will need to change.

On the death or incapacity of a member, typically the deceased/incapacitated trustee will be removed and replaced with their ‘legal personal representative’ (LPR). An example of an LPR is an attorney appointed an enduring power of attorney or executor under a Will.

Another complication is that when a member/individual trustee dies and their death benefit commences to be paid from the SMSF, the trustee/s will need to change again (as the LPR cannot continue to act in place of the deceased member).

Every change of trustee will need to be reflected on all assets of the SMSF (including updating the title to any real property), causing delay and expense to the SMSF and family, at a time when the family would rather be focused on assisting the debilitated member of grieving their death.

Death or incapacity of a director of a corporate trustee

Where there is only one member remaining in the SMSF (due to death or rollout of a member), the remaining member will not have to find a second person to act as co-director of the trustee (single member SMSFs are required to have 2 trustees if the trustees are individuals). Title to the SMSF assets does not need to be changed, although ASIC’s register will.

Reduced ASIC fees

The expense of registering and maintaining a company is the most common deterrent to SMSFs using a corporate trustee however, unlike being a trustee of a family, discretionary or unit trust, where a company only acts as trustee of a SMSF, it is a ‘special purpose company’ (meaning it will receive the benefit of reduced ASIC annual return fees.

Other benefits

Having a company act as trustee can also offer some litigation exposure protection and may assist with borrowing under a Limited Recourse Borrowing Arrangement as some lenders require it

Overall, having a corporate trustee can be a more efficient, cost-effective and administratively simpler option for your SMSF and can be an integral part of your overall estate plan.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information on estate planning, corporate, superannuation or succession issues, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Abolition of Certificates of Title

From 11 October 2021, changes to the land titles system in NSW will apply as part of the transition away from paper-based processes.

The Real Property Amendment (Certificates of Title) Act 2021 makes 2 significant changes with effect from that date:

  1. the cancellation of Certificates of Title (CT) for real property and the control of the right to deal (CoRD) framework – the CoRD being the electronic equivalent of a CT; and
  2. all land dealings must be lodged electronically – referred to as ‘100% eConveyancing’.

Accordingly, on 11 October 2021, all existing CTs will be cancelled and new CTs will no longer be issued. From then on, existing CTs cannot be required to be produced to have a dealing or plan lodged for registration at NSW Land Registry Services (NSWLRS, formerly NSW Land & Property Information and the Land Titles Office).

What does this mean for you?

There are 3 main changes from the current practice for landowners:

  1. those who pay off their mortgage will not receive a CT as was traditionally the case.
  2. a purchaser of property without the need for a mortgage will not receive a CT.
  3. when a plan of subdivision is registered, and new parcels of land created, CTs (or CoRDs) will no longer be issued for those parcels.

In all instances, an “Information Notice” will issue, which will confirm the dealings registered and date of registration.

Abolition of Certificates of Title 

Landowners of unencumbered land (that is with no mortgage) who have a CT don’t have to do anything either before or after 11 October 2021. After this date however, the CT will no longer be a legal document (and thus will have no legal effect), although you may like to keep it for sentimental reasons (although the current CTs aren’t anywhere near as impressive looking as the old system ones).

Note that just because you have paid of your mortgage, it may still be registered no title – it must be formally discharged. If you want the CT, you ought to act quickly to have it discharged and the new CT issued prior to 11 October 2021 as you will not get one after that date.

Those who own unencumbered land, but have someone else holding or storing their CT, may wish to request to have it back. From 11 October 2021 there will no longer be a remedy under the Real Property Act 1900 to get a CT back from others, given it has no legal effect.

Lenders holding CTs

If you hold a CT in as informal security for an unregistered mortgage or charge over a property following an advance of money or provision of goods or services, you should take steps to protect your interests before 11 October 2021 as when CTs are cancelled, this method of securing payment will no longer be available or effective.

From 11 October 2021 lawyers and licensed conveyancers no longer need to ask for a copy of their CT when acting on a sale or when lodging a dealing for registration.

100% eConveyancing

The Registrar General has declared under the NSW Conveyancing Rules that all electronic dealings listed in the Schedule of eDealings are mandated to be lodged electronically.

All land dealings to be lodged with NSWLRS can only be done electronically by a subscriber (e.g. a lawyer, licensed conveyancer or bank) to an Electronic Lodgment Network.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Consumer protection extension

In previous articles we explained the consumer guarantees under the Australian Consumer Law (ACL) in relation to goods and how the ACL applies to services, such as being of acceptable quality, fitness for purpose, matching description etc however, from 01 July 2021, the monetary threshold increases from $40,000 to $100,000 (an increase of 150%).

Presently, the ACL covers ‘consumers’ as being any person or business who acquires goods or services that

  • cost $40,000 or less; or
  • costing more than $40,000 but being ordinarily acquired for domestic, household or personal use or consumption; or
  • if the goods are a vehicle or trailer.

From 01 July 2021, the Treasury Laws Amendment (Acquisition as Consumer—Financial Thresholds) Regulations 2020 expands the ambit of these non-excludable consumer rights to any goods or services acquired for an amount of up to $100,000, regardless of their intended use.

Businesses ought to ensure that their terms and conditions, packaging and advertising covers this expanded definition and ensure that the consumer guarantees are provided for the greater value items and that the mandatory wording is included in relation to the consumer guarantees.

Additionally, staff ought to be made aware of the changes and their effect, arrangements made to identify these expanded ‘consumer’ sales and budgets ought to be adjusted to allow for more claims for refund, replacement or compensation.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information in contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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New eligibility rules for .au domain names

On 12 April 2021, the .au Domain Administration Rules: Licensing (Rules) took effect, consolidating in excess of 30 policies and guidelines which previously applied to all “.au” domain names.

The Rules apply to all registrants who create, transfer or renew a domain name with a “.au” country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) and the registrars who administer those domain names. The new Rules affect .au namespaces created, transferred or renewed after 12 April 2021.

This includes the following open namespaces:

  • “.com.au” and “.net.au” for commercial entities;
  • “.asn.au” for incorporated associations, political parties, trade unions, sporting and special interest clubs;
  • “.org.au” for charities and non-profit organisations; and
  • “.id.au” for individuals who are Australian citizens or residents.

.au Domain Administration Limited (auDA) is the administrator and policy body for the .au ccTLD.

Existing domain name licences expiring after 12 April 2021 continue to be governed by the legacy licensing rules applicable at the time of registration or last renewal until the current licence period ends.

Accordingly, if you had already registered a domain name before 12 April 2021, then the Rules will not apply to that domain name until your current licence period expires and you renew that domain name, or you transfer it.

Any proposed registrant applying for any “.au” domain name licence must:

  1. have an “Australian presence“; and
  2. satisfy any eligibility and allocation criteria

Australian presence

To prove an Australian presence, a registrant can show either that they are:

  • in Australia (such as an Australian citizen or permanent resident, entity with an ABN, incorporated association, partnership, a company registered in Australia under the Corporations Act) etc; or
  • the owner of, or applicant for, an Australian registered trade mark.

Eligibility and allocation criteria

An intended registrant with an Australian presence must also satisfy any eligibility and allocation criteria for the relevant namespace.

Those name spaces are open to registrants who are a “commercial entity” (including Commonwealth entities, statutory bodies, incorporated limited partnerships, trading co-operatives and the government) who apply for a domain name which is:

  • a match or acronym to the registrant’s name;
  • a match to the registrant’s Australian registered trade mark; or
  • a match or synonym to the registrant’s goods, services or premises or an event they sponsor or activity they facilitate, teach or train

For Australian present registrants, a match is defined to mean a domain name that is identical to one, some or all of the words or numbers used in the applicant’s legal name, business name or Australian trade mark. While words or numbers may be omitted, they must be in the same order and must not include any additional words or numbers.

Previously, for foreign entities, a domain name could be “closely and substantially connected“ to the registrant’s trade mark however, the Rules now require an “exact match“ to the words which are the subject of the trade mark registration (excluding trivial items such as punctuation and articles such as “a”, “the”, “of” or “&” etc).

Renting or leasing domain names

Under the Rules, registrants are not allowed to rent or lease their domain names to a third party.

This excludes companies who license domain names held by related bodies corporate (provided they still meet the Australian presence requirement).

What to do for renewal?

If the requirements of the Rules and not satisfied, the licence for that domain name may be suspended or cancelled by the registrar or auDA.

If that domain name registered before 12 April 2021, you can use the time before renewal to assess whether it will comply with the Rules at renewal time and if it doesn’t, you can adopt an appropriate strategy as required.

This may include:

  • Shore up your Australian presence (this is especially so for our clients that are based overseas) by having an entity registered in Australian or obtaining trade mark in Australia.
  • Apply for your business name to be registered an Australian trade mark (this has the added benefit of you owning your name so others can’t use it – remember simply registering a business name gives no ownership in the name at all)
  • Registering a new domain name that does exactly match your name or trade mark.
  • If there is a domain name that does match your name and it is already registered by someone else, you can consider lodging a complaint to the registrar or through the .au Dispute Resolution Policy. Note that they may have a legitimate right to the same domain name as you.
  • Check who the domain name is registered to – is it in your name or your business/company’s name?
  • Consider if your IP/domain name licensing arrangements are such that you rent or lease a domain name to or from a company who is not a related body corporate connected to Australia – if not it may need to be transferred.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information regarding the new eligibility rules for .au domain names or in relation to any commercial law issue, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Could you be a shadow director?

Shadow directors

The term ‘director’ is defined in s.9 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (Act) to mean:

(a)          a person who:

(i)            is appointed to the position of a director; or

(ii)           is appointed to the position of an alternate director and is acting in that capacity;

regardless of the name that is given to their position; and

(b)          unless the contrary intention appears, a person who is not validly appointed as a director if:

(i)            they act in the position of a director; or

(ii)           the directors of the company or body are accustomed to act in accordance with the person’s instructions or wishes.

That is, (a) refers to directors notified to ASIC and (b) covers those who are de facto directors or shadow directors.

Consequently, a person who has not been validly appointed as a director of a company (and whose details are not therefore recorded in ASIC’s registers) may nonetheless be deemed a director of that company if they have influence to the extent that the directors of the company are accustomed to acting in accordance with the person’s instructions or wishes or if they act as if they are a director.

Indicators of being a shadow director

Examples of being a de facto or shadow director can include:

  • having independent authority to negotiate and manage executive matters on behalf of the company (like negotiation of important contracts or the managing employment)
  • promotion of the person to the public as having power to bind the company.
  • having unfettered control of the company’s bank accounts
  • being involved in setting up the company

Subparagraph (b)(ii) does not generally apply to advice given by the person in the proper performance of functions attaching to the person’s professional capacity (such as an external accountant, lawyer or professional adviser), but can include employees and spouses of directors (who may own assets as part of a risk minimization/asset protection strategy implemented by their director spouse).

Those that sit on so called “advisory boards” should pay particular attention to the way in which they carry out their roles and the way in which the company follows (or questions or considers) their recommendations or suggestions.

Consequences

A shadow director will be required to comply with director duties under the Act and can become liable for things like insolvent trading under section 588G.

If you are determined to be a shadow director, penalties can include:

  • a fine of up to $200,000, imprisonment for up to 5 years, or both;
  • personal liability for any loss or damage incurred; and
  • permanent or temporary orders prohibiting you from taking part in the management of a company.

How to help prevent being a shadow director

Steps that can be taken to help minimize the risk of being deemed a director of a company or the consequences of it include:

  • documenting the authorities of key personnel, including limits on authorities, autonomy and decision making (including in employment contracts, workplace policies etc)
  • putting in place robust internal procedures for decision making and approvals
  • ensuring ASIC registers are accurate and up to date
  • limiting advice provided to that which is within your professional qualifications
  • advisors, key staff and ‘advisory boards’ presenting any advice as a recommendation for a company’s consideration, rather than being a direction or instruction to the company or its board
  • otherwise, properly documenting communications
  • consider appropriate insurances

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information in relation to any business related or company matters, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Can Bankrupts be Company Directors?

The Corporations Act provides that undischarged bankrupts or those who have entered into personal insolvency agreements under Part X of the Bankruptcy Act (whether in Australia or another country) cannot act as a director of, or take part in the management of, a company.

Court can grant leave

The Court can however grant leave to an undischarged bankrupt to take part in management of a company and such leave can be granted either with or without conditions. Australian Securities and Investments Commission must be notified of any such application (so ASIC can intervene if required).

The applicant will bear the onus of establishing that the Court should make an exception to the legislative policy behind the prohibition (to protect the public). The court will not easily be convinced that the usual prohibition should not apply and will exercise its discretion with a view to balancing the considerations relevant to the bankrupt and the underlying public policy.

Leave will not be granted where the disqualification was imposed by ASIC (as opposed to an automatic disqualification due to the operation of the Corporations Act).

What is considered?

Hardship to the proposed director is not of itself a persuasive ground for the granting of leave however, it is one of many factors which may be considered by the court in exercising its discretion including the reason for the disqualification, the nature of the bankrupt’s involvement, the general character and conduct of the applicant in the intervening period since being removed from or prevented from being in office, the structure of the company, its business and the interests of shareholders, creditors and employees.

Although such applications are not commonplace, an undischarged bankrupt may be granted leave to take part in the management of companies generally or, more frequently, in the management of a particular company.

Penalties

The disqualification imposed by the Act continues despite the Court granting leave and care must be taken to ensure that any conditions on the leave are complied with as failure to do so can result in the leave being revoked and an offence then being committed and the penalty can include a significant 50 penalty unit fine and/or imprisonment for 12 months.

Bankruptcies generally last 3 years. You can check if someone is an undischarged bankrupt by checking the Australian Financial Security Authority’s Bankruptcy Register 

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information in relation to bankruptcy, insolvency or company matters, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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New rules for resigning directors

The Treasury Laws Amendment (Combatting Illegal Phoenixing) Act 2020 (Cth), which came into effect from 17 February 2021, changed the process and timing relating to director resignations and the resignation of last remaining directors, as well as granting additional powers to ASIC, the ATO and liquidators.

The Act made changes to the Corporations Act 2000 (Cth) as well as taxation administration and GST legislation in an attempt to help prevent illegal phoenixing activities (when a new company is incorporated with the intention to continue the business of a failed company, using the same controllers and assets) including preventing the disposal of assets for less than market value and would prevents or hinders the property being available for creditors (known as ’creditor defeating dispositions’).

The regulations made seek to prevent backdating of resignations and having companies left with no directors at all.

Late notification of resignations

If ASIC is notified of a director’s resignation more than 28 days after the actual resignation date, ASIC will treat the date ASIC receives the notice as the ‘effective date’ of the resignation. Late lodgment fees will still apply.

Practically, this will mean that even if a company director had resigned, that director will remain responsible for the conduct of the company as a director until the later ‘effective date’.

Administrative oversight will not be an excuse even if a third party such as an accountant was responsible for notification.

Last remaining director

Any notices to ASIC that have the effect that a company is left without at least one director will be rejected (or member resolutions of a company to that effect are void).

Some exceptions to this rule exist, including if the last director passes away, the company is being wound up and if the director never consented to their appointment.

Practical approach to resigning

If you are a resigning director (or are removed as a director by resolution), not only should the company notify ASIC of the change in directorship using the standard form 484, you should also take steps yourself to notify ASIC using the form 370.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information in relation to any business related or company matters, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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What is a lien?

A lien is the right of a person or business to hold or retain possession of an item as security for performance of an obligation owed by another, such as the payment of monies owed.

Liens only apply to physically transferable items of personal property and effectively act as an informal or unregistered form of security for payment.

Liens only arise if the item was given to the lien holder with the express or implied authority of the owner (such as the owner or driver of a vehicle) and generally won’t arise over stolen property.

A lien does not arise simply by simply performing work.  There must be a basis for a lien to arise such as a contractual right, a piece of legislation or operation of the law.

There are 4 types of liens, each of which we discuss briefly below:

  1. statutory;
  2. contractual;
  3. common law (or possessory); and
  4. equitable.

In all but the latter of the categories, maintaining actual possession of the property in question is crucial as the rights afforded to the lien holder are only applicable while the lien holder is in possession of such property.

Statutory liens

Statutory liens arise through the operation of specific pieces of legislation such as those in Part 5 of the Sale of Goods Act 1923 (NSW), the Storer’s Liens Act 1935 (NSW) etc.

The relevant Acts describe the terms of the liens created by those statutes.

Contractual liens

If the terms of agreement, terms and conditions of trade or similar document that governs the rights and obligations of the parties to a contract provide for a lien, then such a lien is a ‘contractual lien’.

The operation of the lien is the same however – there must be money or some obligation owed and an item of the other party held pending payment or performance of that obligation.

Common law liens

At common law, liens can either be ‘particular’ or ‘general’ (also known as ‘specific’) and arise by implication of law.

A ‘specific lien’ secures obligations that are incurred in respect of the particular goods that are held.  A common example of a specific lien is the ‘mechanic’s lien’ – the right to hold your car until you have paid for the work performed or a repairer’s lien for payment in respect of improvement work done on a chattel.

A ‘general lien’ however is more favourable, although far less common and more difficult to establish. A general lien allows a person to retain possession of any goods held (but not sell or otherwise deal with that property) until all sums payable by the owner of the goods are satisfied, not just the amount payable in respect of work performed on the specific goods held hostage.

General liens must be established by strict proof of custom or usage such as a ‘solicitors’ lien’ or an ‘accountant’s lien’ which allows a solicitor or accountant to assert a lien over and thus retain a client’s documents (or the fruits of a court action) until payment of all debts owed by the client. It is effectively an implied term of the relevant contract.

Equitable liens

Equitable liens are created on a case by case basis by the law of equity as determined by the Courts. Judges may declare such liens so as to uphold or preserve fairness or justice to a situation having regard to the parties’ dealings and conduct.

An example is where a party spends money improving the item for another where there was either express or implied agreement that the performing party should have an interest in the enhanced property. The party who performed the work and is owed the debt may then acquire an equitable interest in the property proportionate to the value of the enhancement.

Unlike the other types of liens, ‘equitable liens’ do not require actual possession of the article in question. Such liens can be voided by the express or implied agreement of the parties.

Consideration often needs to be given to the value of the lien compared to the substantial time and monetary cost of seeking judicial intervention.

How does a lien end?

Any right to assert a lien (other than an equitable lien) expires upon performance of the outstanding obligation (such as payment) or upon release if the item over which the lien is maintained as without possession, there is no lien.

How does the PPSA affect a lien?

Statutory liens and common law liens can be exempted from the operation of the Personal Properties Securities Act 2009 (Cth) (PPSA).

In some circumstanced, the party asserting the lien can have priority over any security interests registered on the Personal Property Securities Register (PPSR) held by other creditors of owner of the item if:

  • the materials/services were provided in the ordinary course of business by the person asserting the lien;
  • no other Act prevents the lien from having priority; and
  • the holder of the lien did not have knowledge of any security agreement under the PPSR relating to those goods (that prohibited the creation of the lien).

Security interests registered on the PPSR under the PPSA will usually defeat any contractual lien.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For more information, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au to discuss your needs.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice.

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Enforcing judgments overseas (and vice versa)

The success of enforcing judgments overseas will largely depend on the laws of country where the judgment is sought to be enforced. Sometimes the common law or a treaty allows enforcement but often it relies on a statutory arrangement.

Australia has reciprocal arrangements with various countries but as a general rule, to be enforceable in another jurisdiction, the judgment must be:

  • for a fixed sum;
  • consistent with the laws or public policies of the relevant country; and
  • final and conclusive, and

you must provide a verified copy of the original Australian judgment, a translation of the judgment into the relevant language, an affidavit or similar providing at least details of the Australian proceedings, the relevant debt, details of the overseas debtor. There may be some other local matters to tend to as well.

Enforcing a foreign judgment in Australia

The Foreign Judgments Act 1991 (Cth) provides for the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in Australia.

To be enforceable, the foreign judgment must generally:

  • be less than 6 years old;
  • require the payment of money;
  • be final and conclusive (even if subject to or likely subject to an appeal); and
  • not have already been satisfied in the foreign jurisdiction.

Which countries have reciprocal arrangements?

The statutory schemes only apply to countries that have entered into reciprocal arrangements with Australia for the enforcement of each other’s judgments (See Schedule to Foreign Judgments Regulation 1992).

This includes British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Fiji, France, Germany, Italy, Israel, Korea, Japan, Korea, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

It does not include China (although technically Hong Kong is included), India, Russia or the United States of America.

New Zealand has special arrangements as set out below.

New Zealand arrangements

Part 7 of the Trans-Tasman Proceedings Act 2010 (Cth) allows New Zealand judgments of a broader nature to be enforced in Australia including some judgments that don’t solely relate to the payment of money.

This excludes things like probate, guardianship, and the welfare of minors.

Enforcement

Registration of the foreign judgment can be as simple as filing  an application in a Supreme Court, where a judge will process the application (assuming it meets the requirements) in chambers in the absence of the other party and register it as a judgment in that court. The judgment debtor must be served with notice of the registration when the judgment is registered.

The registered foreign judgment can then be enforced like any other judgment such as by way of:

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information in relation to enforcing a judgement, debt recovery, litigation or any other commercial law matter, contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au.

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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Do you have any Unclaimed Money?

In New South Wales, any unclaimed money is generally held by the Revenue NSW.

Unclaimed money is generally any amount in excess of $100 held for at least 6 years without any activity on an account. This may be because the owner moved, changed their name or simply forgot about it.

Types of unclaimed money held by Revenue NSW include dividends, unpresented cheques, distributions, sale proceeds, commissions, royalties and the like.

Generally, enterprises that operate in NSW and hold unclaimed money as at 30 June in any year must submit the money to Revenue NSW by 31 October of that year, after having made reasonable attempts to contact the rightful owner and return the money to them.

Other thresholds and timeframes apply to specific industries such as real estate agents, law firms and trustee companies that operate trust accounts.

You can search for money held by Revenue NSW here.

Unpaid wages

Sometimes an employer owes wages to an employee who has left their business or where wages have found to be underpaid following a workplace audit.

Where the employee can’t be contacted, the unpaid wages are generally held by the Fair Work Ombudsman and can be searched for here.

Superannuation

Superannuation funds that cannot locate beneficiaries of superannuation monies place the details on the Superannuation Lost Members Register, which can be searched through the MyGov portal via Australian Taxation Office’s website here.

Banks and life insurers

Banks, credit unions and life insurance companies also have unclaimed money issues where a bank account is inactive (has no deposits or withdrawals) for 7 years or where the proceeds of a life insurance policy is unclaimed for 7 years after the policy matures.

Where they can’t locate an owner of funds held, they must lodge their unclaimed monies with the Australian Securities & Investments Commission.

Unclaimed money received by ASIC is transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia Consolidated Revenue Fund and it is available to be claimed at any time by the rightful owner and there is no time limit on claims. ASIC’s unclaimed money search is located at ASIC’s MoneySmart website here.

FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information in relation to unclaimed money or any business related legal issues, please contact McKillop Legal on (02) 9521 2455 or email help@mckilloplegal.com.au 

This information is general only and is not a substitute for proper legal advice. Please contact McKillop Legal to discuss your needs.

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